# Philosophy 160 Deductive Logic II

## Friday, May 12, 2017

This is the sheet of inference rules and definitions that you will have available during the final. Note the continued absence of proof methods, including mathematical induction. As always, the more you plan to rely on this sheet, the less well you are likely to do.

This is the model that will be used for the semantic portion of the exam. Study it carefully before the exam. Minor changes are possible. Check back Sunday evening just in case. If I have made any changes, there will be a post saying so and I will highlight the changes.

Remember the exam time is 12:45-2:45!

Remember the exam time is 12:45-2:45!

## Thursday, May 11, 2017

These questions should be posted by this evening.

## Monday, May 8, 2017

Clearly identifythreesignificant errors in the following.

Church's theorem shows that predicate logic is incomplete. This means that there will never come a time when we can be sure that it is finished. GĂ¶del proved the same thing about math, sowing that there are mathematical truths that we will never be able to prove.

## Thursday, May 4, 2017

Our final is Monday May 15th from 12:45 to 2:45.

The final exam will consist of the following:

**Proofs**: (2 pts. each)

A natural deduction proof of each of the following types:

- Propositional logic
- Predicate logic
- Predicate logic with identity and functions
- Predicate logic with identity, functions, membership and basic set theoretic concepts.
- Leibnizian modal logic

- Set theory (as in HW 18)
- Weak induction (as in HW 19)

At least half of the proofs will be drawn directly from homework sets. All will be designed to test your basic comprehension of these methods.

**Semantics:**(7 pts. total)

- Evaluation of formulas in all of the above categories, as in HW's 3, 8 and 15. Models used will be similar, though not necessarily identical.
- Determining properties of functions, with explanations that makes explicit reference to definitions of these properties (as in HW 17.)

**Short essay questions:**(2 pts each)

- A few days before the final I will post 5 short essay questions of a somewhat philosophical nature. They will focus on the material covered since the last test. Each will require some technical competence to answer as well. Three of these questions will be chosen randomly at the beginning of class. (Everyone gets the same three questions.) You will have two options:

- Answer two of the questions;
- Answer all three questions and select one problem from the proof section for which it is to be substituted. If you exercise this option, you must make this selection explicitly; i.e., you may not answer both and get credit for the one you do best.

**Clarifications:**

You will specifically

__not__be required to do proofs or refutation trees in Meinongian free logic or multi-valued logic (finite or infinite).
The rules for the final are the same as for the previous two tests. Your information sheet will be updated to include predicate logic definitions of essential set-theoretic concepts.

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